Romans 9:1-29 – God’s saving work of righteousness (part 1)

Romans 8 demonstrated that the believer is secure in Jesus Christ and that God’s elect will stand. Both Jew and Gentile are secure in Christ with the understanding that nothing can separate them form the love of Christ.  Rom. 8:28-30 states the point and the 5 questions of vv. 31-35 drive it home without doubt.

  1. 31 – If God is for us, then who can be against us?
  2. 32 – He who did not spare his own Son but gave him up for us all, how will he not also with him graciously give us all things?
  3. 33 – Who shall bring any charge against God’s elect? It is God who justifies.
  4. 34 – Who is to condemn? Christ Jesus is the one who died—more than that, who was raised—who is at the right hand of God, who indeed is interceding for us.
  5. 35 – Who shall separate us from the love of Christ?


Romans 9-11 deals with the purpose and plan of God in relation to the nation of Israel.  Naturally, questions would have come about due to the nature of the mostly Gentile church in Rome.  Chapters 9-11 help answer these questions.

  • If the salvation is from the Jews, then why was it rejected by the Jews?
  • Has God forsaken His people?
  • If the nation of Israel is God’s chosen nation, then why is the Christian community in Rome mostly Gentile?
  • Is the Word of God to be trusted? His own people were not changed then how can we expect the Gospel to change the Gentile’s.
  • What about us? Is our faith secure?  Is the Word enough?



Big Picture Outline for Romans 9-11


God’s righteousness to Israel – 9:1-11:36


  • A lament for Israel – 9:1-5
    • 1-5 – Paul’s sorrow


  • Israel’s Past: The election of God – 9:6-29
    • 6-29 – God’s Sovereignty


  • Israel’s Present: Rejection and a remnant by Grace (Human Responsibility): 9:30-10:21
    • 30-33 – Righteousness by faith and righteousness by works
    • 10:1-21 – Rejection and reception of the Gospel


  • Israel’s Future: Salvation (God’s purpose of Israel): 11:11-36



Romans 9:1-29


The tragedy of Israel’s unbelief – vv. 1-5 (Paul’s sorrow)

  • Even though God had blessed them so.
  • 8 blessing bestowed upon them
    • Adoption, glory, the covenants, the law, the worship, the promises, belong to the patriarchs, Christ will come from their race.


This unbelief is part of God’s plan – vv. 6-13 (God’s sovereignty)


  • God’s sovereignty = the fulfilment of His purpose and plan
  • We often think, hear or say:
    • Why did this happen?
    • What is the good in this?
    • This in not fair.
    • God is too loving to allow things that this to happen.
  • Yet, when we consider that the Bible teaches us ALL THINGS work together (Romans 8:28 specifically but throughout Scripture) we see God’s hand in all of the affairs of life. Then we can understand that ALL THINGS pertains to God’s eternal purpose and plan.  The small details of life fit perfectly together in the Big Picture of God’s eternal plan and purpose.
  • Our mind in not capable of processing the eternal plan and purposes of God.


The Word of God has not failed – Ishmael and Isaac – vv. 6-9

  • God chose Isaac (Abraham’s son through Sarah) over Ishmael (Abraham’s son through Hagar)
  • Ishmael – First born of Abraham and viewed as a patriarch of Islam.


In order that God’s purpose of election may continue – Esau and Jacob – vv. 10-13

  • He chose Jacob the second born twin over Esau.
  • He made this decision long before they were born (vv. 11-12)
  • He did it to show that His sovereign decrees are not based on what yet-unborn human beings might or might not do.
  • Hate/Loved less
    1. Matt. 6:24, Luke 14:26, John 12:25
    2. Can be understood as accepted and rejected, loved more or loved less, or as hatred – Malachi 1:2-5
  • Israel and Edom (Blessing and Judgement)
  1. Someone asked Spurgeon “I cannot understand why God would say that He hated Esau. He replied…That is not my difficulty.  My trouble is in understanding why He loved Jacob.
  • Esau – King Herod the Great. Massacre of children of Bethlehem.


God’s plan for Israel’s unbelief is not unfair put perfectly just – vv. 14-29


God’s mercy – Moses and Pharaoh – vv. 14-24

  • I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion. 33:19
  • He has mercy on whomever He wills and hardens whomever He wills.
  • Has the potter have no right over the clay?
  • To make known the riches of His glory.


God’s grace – Hosea – vv. 25-26

  • 1:10
    • God’s grace not limited to Israel only.
    • Gentiles “sons of the living God”


God’s remnant – Isaiah – vv. 27-29

  • Isaiah 10:22
    • A remnant will be saved.
    • By God’s grace a remnant will be saved!


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